Hybrid User Interface Styles

In a hybrid user interface the objects manipulated by the user can be presented either as

An example of a hybrid interface is the Windows file manager. Here the objects are presented graphically but the conceptual model is based on the computer artifacts of file and directory. It is worth thinking about the following question.

How would you redesign the file manager interface to be based more on the direct manipulation image? Would you want to?

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Last Changed: 24 April 1995