Task analysis: John Bonfiglio

Task User List

User Types:

End
Uses the product to view previously prepared Slides and Slide shows. Will print the data on occasion.
Normal
- Uses the product to create presentations based on previously defined formats. Slides already exist and need to be created for this product.
Expert -
Uses the product to create many different types of presentations.

User Type

							
Task List                        End          Normal     Expert	

Create New Slide                 Never        Sometimes   Often
Build New Presentation           Never        Sometimes   Often
Edit Existing Slide/Presentation Sometimes    Often       Often
Save Slide/Presentation	      Never        Often	   Often
Print Slide/Presentation         Sometimes	  Sometimes   Sometimes
View Slide/Presentation          Often        Sometimes   Sometimes
Add/Edit Text	                 Never        Often      Often
Insert Graphics                  Never        Sometimes   Often
Edit Slide Setup                 Never        Sometimes   Often
Send Slide thru E-Mail           Sometimes	  Sometimes   Sometimes

Task Descriptions

Task: Create New Slide

- Open a work space, either blank or from a predefined template, where the designer will build their slide. When the designer selects NEW, they will have their choice of possible presentation styles. For example, they can choose to have the software walk them a series of "What are you doing?" questions, or select from a list of predefined presentation styles (i.e. presentations with graphs, presentations with clip art).

Preconditions:
Previously opened slides have been saved or changes have been canceled.
Goal:
To build the basic work space necessary to complete the desired design.
Breakdown:
User selects wrong slide type, forgets a template name, template does not exist.
Postcondition:
Slide exists in format selected by the designer, ready for any necessary modifications.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel
Objects:
Auto Content Wizard, Presentation Wizard, Templates, Blank Presentations, Work space
Steps:
  1. - Select NEW from the FILE menu or click on the appropriate toolbar icon.
  2. - Select the appropriate object from to resulting menu (see objects).
  3. - Follow software guided instructions to create the desired work space.
Critical Features:
The software guided Question and Answer session that creates a template for the type of presentation being designed takes a lot of the leg work out of the design process.

Task: Build New Presentation

- Allows designer to group together a series of predefined slides to form a finished presentation. Designer has ability to add special effects, that is determine the style in which the slides will fade in and out. The designer may also change slide backgrounds throughout the entire presentation. The designer may also add and rehearse the timing of slide transitions.

Preconditions:
All slides being added to presentation must previously exist.
Goal:
To build a working presentation that is clear and understandable by an audience.
Breakdown:
User miscalculates timing between slides, Proper slides do not exist.
Postcondition:
Necessary viewing software must be in place to show presentations.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel
Objects:
Slide Sorter, Presentation Work space
Steps:
  1. - Select Slide Sorter from the toolbar
  2. - Insert the necessary slides into the presentation
  3. - Add the appropriate special effects (build and transition effects)
  4. - Add transition timing or set up transitions through a keypress or mouse click
  5. - Test the presentation
Critical Features:
Global update features, such as ability to change all background colors at once; The ability to record time between slide transitions.

Task: Edit Existing Slide/Presentation

- Allows designer make necessary changes to previously created slides or presentations.

Preconditions:
Slides or presentation being edited must exist.
Goal:
To correct any previous mistakes by editing already existing files.
Breakdown:
Improper edits may corrupt original file.
Postcondition:
User must save new changes to current file for updates to take effect.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel, Presentation viewing personnel
Objects:
Slide or presentation from existing file
Steps:
  1. - Select OPEN from the file menu or the toolbar icon
  2. - Choose the desired file from the file list
Critical Features:
User may browse lists of files if necessary file name cannot be remembered.

Task: Save Slide/Presentation

- Allows designer to save current work space to a file for future reference.

Preconditions:
Filename must be unique, proper secondary storage space must exist
Goal:
To archive to changes made to the work space to avoid redoing them in the future.
Breakdown:
Secondary storage is defective.
Postcondition:
File exists on secondary storage device
Agents:
Presentation design personnel, Presentation viewing personnel
Objects:
Secondary storage device, Work space data
Steps:
  1. - Select SAVE from the file menu or toolbar icon
  2. - Name the file and select OK
Critical Features:
Users may see a list of previously existing filenames to help avoid in overwriting critical data. Software should prompt user for a confirmation if overwriting the file is still desired.

Task: Print Slide/Presentation

- Allows designer or viewer to output the current slide or presentation to the specified output device.

Preconditions:
Output device must be available and online.
Goal:
To produce a hard copy of the data.
Breakdown:
Output device does not exist, Output device malfunctions
Postcondition:
Output exists on the specified device.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel, Presentation viewing personnel
Objects:
Slide/Presentation data, Output Device
Steps:
  1. - Select PRINT from the FILE menu or toolbar icon
  2. - If printer is not selected, enter PRINT SETUP and select necessary printer
Critical Features:
All aspects of printing can be changed from within the application.

Task: View Slide/Presentation

- Allows designer or viewer to output the current slide or presentation to the screen.

Preconditions:
Desired data must have been previously recalled into thework spacee.
Goal:
To view the data personally or for a formal presentation on an overhead projector.
Breakdown:
User prematurely presses a key, undesirably moving to the next slide in the presentation.
Postcondition:
Output exists on the screen
Agents:
Presentation design personnel, Presentation viewing personnel
Objects:
Slide/Presentation data, Viewing screen and/or overhead projector
Steps:
  1. - SelectSLIDE SHOW from VIEW menu or toolbar icon
  2. - View slide and press a key to advance to next one
Critical Features:
Slides are being view in "real" mode, or "what you see is what you get". Lower right corner contains an option to allow free hand drawing on the current slide during the presentation (useful for notes or pointing out important features).

Task: Add/Edit Text

- Allows designer to add or manipulate text within the slide.

Preconditions:
Work space must be predefined and available to designer.
Goal:
To produce the text portion of the presentation.
Breakdown:
Desired text is not available (i.e. desired font or pitch)
Postcondition:
Printer must have available font/pitch available for hard copy output.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel
Objects:
Text, Fonts/Pitches, Appearances, Alignments
Steps:
  1. - Choose the text tool from the toolbar
  2. - Type desired text throughout the slide
  3. - Select a block of text
  4. - Perform necessary adjustments and repeat for remaining text
  5. - Perform necessary CUT, COPY, and PASTE commands to move text within the slide
Critical Features:
All text attributes display below the toolbar and are changed by using simple pull down menus and toolbar icons. One can easily change attributes to determine the best look and feel of the slide.

Task: Insert Graphics

- Allows designer to insert graphics from an outside source or to create their own within the slide workspace. Most graphics will be in the form of predefined clipart.

Preconditions:
Graphic data must exist and be in the proper format.
Goal:
To add graphic representations to the presentation.
Breakdown:
Graphics exist in the wrong format (i.e. bitmap format, not PDF format)
Postcondition:
Printer must have enough memory to process graphics to allow hard copy to be produced.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel
Objects:
Spreadsheets, Word processing documents, Graphs, Clipart, Drawing Tools
Steps:
  1. - Select which graphic you wish to add from the INSERT menu
  2. - Enter the file name and select OK; repeat step 1 for remaining graphics
  3. - Select drawing tools to create your own graphics
  4. - Add necessary self drawn graphics (i.e. Lines, Circles, etc.)
Critical Features:
Important data such as Lotus spread sheets can be added to your presentation with very little effort. The clipart gallery can be expanded to contain an unlimited amount of graphics. Self drawn objects can be grouped together and sized proportionately to each other.

Task: Edit Slide Setup

- Allows designer to modify the look and feel of the slide in proportion to the page that will contain it.

Preconditions:
Slide must be opened or new work space created.
Goal:
To format the slide to the desired look and feel.
Breakdown:
Slide may be sized for unavailable paper size, thus giving more or less room than actually needed in work space.
Postcondition:
Slide size must fit within available paper/transparency sizes.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel
Objects:
Slide/Presentation data, Work space
Steps:
  1. - Select SLIDE SETUP from the FILE menu or toolbar icon
  2. - Size the slide to desired proportions
  3. - Select the slide orientation
  4. - Select the slide number pattern
Critical Features:
Slide attributes can be modified dynamically.

Task: Send Slide thru E-Mail

- Allows designer or viewer to mail the slide or presentation through any available computer mail system.

Preconditions:
Electronic mail system must be available and online.
Goal:
To transmit data with producing a hard copy.
Breakdown:
Mail system is unavailable at the time the data is to be sent.
Postcondition:
Receiver must have access to an electronic post office box.
Agents:
Presentation design personnel, Presentation viewing personnel
Objects:
Slide/Presentation data, E-Mail system
Steps:
  1. - Select SEND SLIDE from FILE menu
  2. - Enter destination address of desired receiving personnel
  3. - Send the data through the mail system
Critical Features:
E-Mail option will work with a variety of available mail packages.

Task/Object Table

Task Types:

Slide -
Designer creates a single slide, adding graphics and text as needed.
Presentation -
Designer strings together a series of slides, with no special effects and a simple mouse click or keypress for slide transitions..
Complex Presentation -
Designer strings together a series of slides, using special effects for fade in/out of slide transitions. Designer also may implement complex timing between slide transitions.
                        Slide         Presentation      Complex
                                                        Presentation

Create New Slide          .05/.05        0/0              0/0
Build New Presentation      0/0        .05/.05	       .05/.05
Edit Existing
Slide/Presentation          0/0        .35/.50	       .35/.55
Save Slide/Presentation   .10/.05      .10/.05          .05/.05
View Slide/Presentation   .20/.10	 .25/.15	       .35/.15
Print Slide/Presentation  .10/.05	 .05/.10	       .05/.05
Edit Slide Setup          .05/.05	 .05/.05          .05/.05
E-Mail Presentation         0/0          0/0              0/0
Add/Edit Text	         .20/.30	      .05/.05          .05/.05
Insert Graphics          .30/.40       .10/.05          .05/.05

PseudoCode

task create presentation {
	while (slides to build) {
		subtask create new slide;
		subtask edit slide setup;
		While (text to add)
			Subtask add/edit text;
		While (graphics to insert)
			Subtask insert graphics;
		while (slide is not correct) {
			Subtask save slide/presentation;
			Subtask view slide/presentation;
			While (text to edit)
				Subtask add/edit text;
			While (graphics to manipulate)
				Subtask insert graphics;
		}	
		if (hard copy desired)
			Subtask print slide/presentation;
		if (correspondence desired)
			Subtask e-mail slide/presentation;
	}

	subtask build new presentation;
	while (special effects to add)
		subtask insert special effects;
	while (presentation is not correct) {
		subtask save slide/presentation;
		subtask view slide/presentation;
		while (special effects to edit)
			subtask edit special effects;
	}	
	if (hard copy desired)
		subtask print slide/presentation;
	if (correspondence desired)
		subtask e-mail slide/presentation;
} // end task "create presentation"




task edit presentation {
	while (slides to edit) {
		subtask edit slide/presentation;
		while (slide setup incorrect)
			subtask edit slide setup;
		while (slide is not correct) {
			While (text to edit)
				Subtask add/edit text;
			While (graphics to manipulate)
				Subtask insert graphics;
			Subtask save slide/presentation;
			Subtask view slide/presentation;
		}	
		if (hard copy desired)
			Subtask print slide/presentation;
		if (correspondence desired)
			Subtask e-mail slide/presentation;
	}

	subtask edit slide\presentation;
	while (presentation is not correct) {
		while (special effects to edit)
			subtask edit special effects;
		subtask save slide/presentation;
		subtask view slide/presentation;
	}	
	if (hard copy desired)
		subtask print slide/presentation;
	if (correspondence desired)
		subtask e-mail slide/presentation;
} // end task "edit presentation"




subtask create new slide {
	select NEW from the FILE menu
	case (workspace desired) {
		auto content wizard : answer questions about data to be contained in 				           presentation
		presentation wizard : select from software defined presentation styles
		templates	        : enter file name of appropriate template
		blank presentation   : select what type of data is to be placed in 				           presentation
	}
} // end subtask "create new slide"

subtask edit slide setup {
	select EDIT SLIDE SETUP from FILE menu
	choose paper size
	choose paper orientation
	choose slide numbering scheme
} // end subtask "edit slide setup"

subtask add/edit text {
	select block of text
	while (making adjustments) {
		edit block of text
		case (adjustment to be made) {
			font / pitches  : arial, times, sans serif, etc.
			appearances   : bold, underline, italics, etc.
			Alignments    : left, right, center
		}
		select a block of text
	}		
} // end subtask "add/edit text"

subtask insert graphics {
	case (graphic type) {
		spreadsheet			: enter spreadsheet file name
		word processing document 	: enter document file name
		graph  			: enter graph file name
		clipart				: retrieve clipart gallery
		shapes, lines			: invoke drawing tools
	}
	add graphic to workspace
} // end subtask "insert graphics"



subtask save slide/presentation {
	select SAVE from the FILE menu
	enter file name or select file name from list
	if file name exists
		display error message
	if insufficient space
		display error message
	write data
} // end subtask "save slide/presentation"

subtask view slide/presentation {
	select SLIDE SHOW from VIEW menu
	while (slide to view) 
		display slide on screen
} // end subtask "view slide/presentation"

subtask insert special effects {
	while (slides to update)
		add effects when building the slide
		add effects during transition
} // end subtask "insert special effects"

subtask print slide/presentation {
	select PRINT from the FILE menu
	if (printer not online)
		display error message
	if (printer not supported)
		display error message
	print slide
} // end subtask "print slide/presentation"

subtask e-mail slide/presentation {
	select E-MAIL from the FILE menu
	enter destination address
	if (destination net exist)
		display error message
	if (e-mail not online)
		display error message
	send slide to destination
} // end subtask "e-mail slide/presentation"

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Last Changed: 1995